Reference grammar

Vocabulary for learning

Chapter 1

dormiō I sleep
ego I
frāter brother
hōra hour
in in, on
īnsula apartment building
labōrō I work
legō I read
meus my
nōn not
pater father
rīdeō I laugh, smile
servus slave, enslaved person (male)
you (singular)
turba crowd
ubi? where?
via street, road, way
sum I am
es you (singular) are
est (he/she/it) is

Chapter 2

cadō I fall
cibus, cibum, m. food
dūcō I lead, take
et and
fīlia, fīliam, f. daughter
fīlius, fīlium, m. son
forum, forum, n. forum, marketplace
habeō I have, hold
habitō I live
intrō I enter
magnus big, large, great
pecūnia, pecūniam, f. money, sum of money
quaerō I search for, look for, ask
quoque also, too
salūtō I greet
sed but
spectō I look at, watch
videō I see
vīnum, vīnum, n. wine
vocō I call

Chapter 3

ambulō I walk
amīcus, amīcum, m. friend
ancilla, ancillam, f. slave, enslaved person, (female)
clāmō I shout
clāmor, clāmōrem, m. shout, shouting, noise
cum with
currō I run
dīcō I say, speak, tell
equus, equum, m. horse
festīnō I hurry
gladius, gladium, m. sword
īnfēlīx unlucky, unhappy
laetus happy
multus much, many
omnis all, every
per through, along
prīmus first
senātor, senātōrem, m. senator
urbs, urbem, f. city
vincō I conquer, win, am
victorious

Chapter 4

ad to, towards; at
adsum I am here, I am present
deus, deum, m. god
dominus, dominum, m. master
dōnum, dōnum, n. gift, present
laudō I praise
nōs we, us
parvus small
perīculum, perīculum, n. danger
perterritus terrified
puella, puellam, f. girl
quod because
rēx, rēgem, m. king
Rōmānus Roman
subitō suddenly
templum, templum, n. temple
teneō I hold, keep, possess
tollō I raise, lift up, hold up
veniō I come
vōs you (plural)

Chapter 5

aqua, aquam, f. water
audiō, audīre hear, listen to
cupiō, cupere want, desire
custōs, custōdem, m.f. guard
dēbeō, dēbēre owe
dō, dare give
effugiō, effugere escape
iuvenis, iuvenem, m. young person
maneō, manēre remain, stay
nēmō, nēminem no one, nobody
nōlō, nōlle not want, refuse
nox, noctem, f. night
portō, portāre carry, bear, take
possum, posse can, am able
pulcher beautiful, handsome
respondeō, respondēre reply
taceō, tacēre am silent, am quiet
timeō, timēre fear, am afraid
vēndō, vēndere sell
volō, velle want, wish, am willing

Chapter 6

ā, ab + abl. from, away from, by
capiō, capere take, catch, capture, adopt (a plan)
diēs, diem, m. day
discēdō, discēdere depart, leave
ē, ex + abl. from, out of
exspectō, exspectāre wait for, expect
faciō, facere make, do
iam now, already
in + acc. into, onto
inquit says
marītus, marītum, m. husband
māter, mātrem, f. mother
prope + acc. near
rogō, rogāre ask, ask for
sedeō, sedēre sit
stō, stāre stand
tōtus whole
trīstis sad
tuus your (singular), yours
uxor, uxōrem, f. wife

Chapter 7

appropinquō, appropinquāre, appropinquāvī approach, come near to
cūr? why?
epistula, epistulam, f. letter
homō, hominem, m. man, person
ingēns huge
īnsula, īnsulam, f. island; apartment building
mīles, mīlitem, m. soldier
minimē no
nārrō, nārrāre, nārrāvī tell, relate
nauta, nautam, m. sailor
nunc now
ōlim once, some time ago
pars, partem, f. part
puer, puerum, m. boy
pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī fight
rēs, rem, f. thing, story
saepe often
silva, silvam, f. wood, forest
tum then
vehementer loudly, violently, strongly

Chapter 8

agō, agere, ēgī do
bibō, bibere, bibī drink
cōnspiciō, cōnspicere, cōnspexī catch sight of, notice
+ abl. from, down from; about
domus, domum, f. house, home
eam her; it
eum him; it
gerō, gerere, gessī wear
iaceō, iacēre, iacuī lie down
incendō, incendere, incendī burn, set on fire
mox soon
nihil nothing
noster our
porta, portam, f. gate
postquam after
prōcēdō, prōcēdere, prōcessī go along, proceed
senex, senem, m. old person
surgō, surgere, surrēxī get up
tandem at last, finally
trāns + acc. across

Chapter 9

adveniō, advenīre, advēnī arrive
cīvis, cīvem, m.f. citizen
difficilis difficult
domina, dominam, f. mistress, lady
gravis heavy
hostis, hostem, m. enemy
imperātor, imperātōrem, m. emperor, general
īrātus angry
iter, iter, n. journey, route, way
lacrimō, lacrimāre, lacrimāvī cry, weep
līberī, līberōs, m.pl. children
medius middle, middle of
nūntius, nūntium, m. messenger; message, news
paucī, pl. few, a few
petō, petere, petīvī attack; seek, beg, ask for
sanguis, sanguinem, m. blood
statim immediately, at once
trādō, trādere, trādidī hand over, hand down
vir, virum, m. man
vīta, vītam, f. life

Chapter 10

accipiō, accipere, accēpī accept, take in, receive
alius, alia, aliud another, other
annus, annum, m. year
bonus, bona, bonum good
contrā + acc. . against
dea, deam, f. goddess
deinde then
ferō, ferre, tulī bring, carry, bear
fidēlis, fidēlis, fidēle loyal, faithful, trustworthy
iaciō, iacere, iēcī throw
locus, locum, m. place
miser, misera, miserum poor, unfortunate
novus, nova, novum new
nūllus, nūlla, nūllum no, not any
occīdō, occīdere, occīdī kill
pāx, pācem, f. peace
pereō, perīre, periī die, perish
quam … ! how … !
sacer, sacra, sacrum sacred, holy
sub + acc. or abl. under, below, beneath

Chapter 11

absum, abesse, āfuī am out, absent, away
accidō, accidere, accidī happen
altus, alta, altum high, deep
bene well
dux, ducis, m. leader
flūmen, flūminis, n. river
fortis, fortis, forte brave
frūstrā in vain, without success
fugiō, fugere, fūgī run away, flee
hodiē today
ibi there
inveniō, invenīre, invēnī find
itaque and so, therefore
mare, maris, n. sea
nāvigō, nāvigāre, nāvigāvī sail
nāvis, nāvis, f. ship
prō + abl. in front of; for
saevus, saeva, saevum savage, cruel
sōlus, sōla, sōlum alone, lonely, only, on one’s own
ubi where? where, when

Chapter 12

caelum, caelī, n. sky, heaven
caput, capitis, n. head
corpus, corporis, n. body
crūdēlis, crūdēlis, crūdēle cruel
dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī destroy
diū for a long time
iānua, iānuae, f. door, doorway
iterum again
mittō, mittere, mīsī send
offerō, offerre, obtulī offer
quis? quid? who? what?
redeō, redīre, rediī go back, come back, return
Rōma, Rōmae, f. Rome
servō, servāre, servāvī save, protect, keep, look after
stultus, stulta, stultum stupid, foolish
superō, superāre, superāvī overcome, overpower
taberna, tabernae, f. shop, inn
terra, terrae, f. ground
trahō, trahere, trāxī drag, draw, pull
vōx, vōcis, f. voice, shout

Chapter 13

coepī, coepisse, coeptus began
cōnsūmō, cōnsūmere, cōnsūmpsī consume, eat
intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī understand, realize
inter + acc. among, between
ita vērō yes, absolutely
labor, labōris, m. work
longus, longa, longum long
mūrus, mūrī, m. wall
nōmen, nōminis, n. name
parō, parāre, parāvī prepare
post + acc. after, behind
praemium, praemiī, n. prize, reward, profit
quamquam although
quī, quae, quod who, which
quōmodo? how? in what way?
semper always
summus, summa, summum highest, greatest, top (of)
suus, sua, suum her, his, its, their (own)
tamen however
vīvō, vīvere, vīxī live, be alive

Chapter 14

amō, amāre, amāvī love, like
amor, amōris, m. love
cōgitō, cōgitāre, cōgitāvī think, consider
cōnficiō, cōnficere, cōnfēcī finish
cōnsilium, cōnsiliī, n. plan, idea, advice
cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī decide
dīrus, dīra, dīrum dreadful
eōs them
fēmina, fēminae, f. woman
mōns, montis, m. mountain
mors, mortis, f. death
nec and not, nor, neither
nec … nec … neither … nor …
necō, necāre, necāvī kill
nesciō, nescīre, nescīvī don't know
numquam never
ostendō, ostendere, ostendī show
tempus, temporis, n. time
terreō, terrēre, terruī frighten
verbum, verbī, n. word

Chapter 15

anteā before
bellum, bellī, n. war
cēna, cēnae, f. dinner, meal
cēterī, cēterae, cētera, pl. the rest, the others
cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī get to know, find out, learn
comes, comitis, m.f. comrade, companion
eō, īre, iī go
etiam even, also
ferōx, ferōx, ferōcis fierce, ferocious
hortus, hortī, m. garden
intereā meanwhile
iubeō, iubēre, iussī order
lībertus, lībertī, m. freedman, former slave
multum much
nōnne? surely?
nūntiō, nūntiāre, nūntiāvī announce, report
putō, putāre, putāvī think
himself, herself, itself, themselves
simulatque as soon as
vīlla, vīllae, f. country house, house

Chapter 16

>
ac and
auferō, auferre, abstulī steal, carry off
brevis, brevis, breve short, brief
cēlō, cēlāre, cēlāvī hide
hic, haec, hoc this, he, she, it
ille, illa, illud that, he, she, it
imperium, imperiī, n. empire; power
legō, legere, lēgī read; choose
lūx, lūcis, f. light, daylight
ōrō, ōrāre, ōrāvī beg, beg for
prīnceps, prīncipis, m. chief; emperor
quō? where to?
rapiō, rapere, rapuī seize, grab
rēgīna, rēgīnae, f. queen
resistō, resistere, restitī + dat. resist
reveniō, revenīre, revēnī come back, return
sciō, scīre, scīvī know
sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī feel, notice
if
sine + abl. without
Order of information in Latin sentences
  1. In a Latin sentence information tends to come in a standard order. Familiarity with that order can help you to read and understand Latin.

  2. In general, expect the nominative first, then accusative, and then verb. For example:

    sorōrēs
    sisters
    gladiōs
    swords
    vēndēbant.
    they were selling
    The sisters were selling swords.
  3. If the nominative does not need to be stated, expect accusative, verb:

    gladiōs vēndēbant.
    swords they were selling
    They were selling swords.
  4. If there is no accusative, then expect nominative, verb:

    sorōrēs currēbant.
    sisters they were running
    The sisters were running.
  5. Adverbs, and phrases describing the action, are usually immediately before the verb:

    sorōrēs gladiōs in forō vēndēbant.
    sisters swords in the forum they were selling
    The sisters were selling swords in the forum.
  6. A dative noun is usually between the nominative and accusative:

    sorōrēs cīvibus gladiōs in forō vēndēbant.
    sisters to the citizens swords in the forum they were selling.
    The sisters were selling swords to the citizens in the forum.
  7. Adjectives may appear before or after the nouns they describe.

    sorōrēs cīvibus gladiōs pulchrōs in forō vēndēbant.
    sisters to the citizens swords, beautiful ones, in the forum they were selling
    The sisters were selling beautiful swords to the citizens in the forum.

    Adjectives of size or number are usually before the noun they describe:

    sorōrēs cīvibus multōs gladiōs in forō vēndēbant.
    sisters to the citizens many swords in the forum they were selling
    The sisters were selling many swords to the citizens in the forum.
  8. Genitives usually follow the nouns they describe:

    sorōrēs cīvibus gladiōs parentum in forō vēndēbant.
    sisters to the citizens swords of their parents in the forum they were selling
    The sisters were selling their parents’ swords to the citizens in the forum.
  9. Relative clauses also often follow the nouns they describe:

    Sabīna, quae paene rīdēbat, Alexandrō appropinquāvit.
    Sabina who almost was laughing to Alexander drew near
    Sabina, who was almost laughing, drew near to/approached Alexander.
  10. Indirect statements use an accusative and infinitive construction. The accusative usually comes immediately after the verb of saying, thinking, or perceiving. The infinitive often comes at the end of the sentence:

    servī dīcunt hominēs plaustra custōdīre.
    slaves say men carts to guard
    The slaves say that men are guarding the carts.
  11. As you become familiar with the usual word order, you may notice when the author departs from that order to emphasize a particular word or point:

    Mānium in viā invēnimus mortuum.
    Manius in the street we found dead
    We found Manius in the street. He was dead.
    servum Rūfīna videt.
    slave Rufina sees
    It’s the slave that Rufina sees.

    Sometimes Latin authors used a symmetrical order of words:

    clāmōrēs hominum et equōrum hinnītus
    shouts of men and of horses neighing
    the shouts of men and the neighing of horses

    Latin authors were also fond of using three parallel examples, as well as removing words such as et:

    vigilēs, cīvēs, servī servāre temptābant virginēs
    firemen citizens slaves to save were trying young women
    The firemen, citizens, and enslaved people were trying to save the young women.

    Latin verbs are sometimes omitted if they can be understood from elsewhere in the sentence:

    mīles erat nimium gravis, puella nōn valida, glaciēs nōn firma.
    The soldier was too heavy, the girl (was) not strong, the ice (was) not firm.
Nouns

First declension

Second declension

feminine masculine masculine neuter
SINGULAR
nominative puella amīcus puer dōnum
genitive puellae amīcī puerī dōnī
dative puellae amīcō puerō dōnō
accusative puellam amīcum puerum dōnum
ablative puellā amīcō puerō dōnō
PLURAL
nominative puellae amīcī puerī dōna
genitive puellārum amīcōrum puerōrum dōnōrum
dative puellīs amīcīs puerīs dōnīs
accusative puellās amīcōs puerōs dōna
ablative puellīs amīcīs puerīs dōnīs

Third declension

masculine feminine feminine neuter
SINGULAR
nominative fūr nox urbs caput
genitive fūris noctis urbis capitis
dative fūrī noctī urbī capitī
accusative fūrem noctem urbem caput
ablative fūre nocte urbe capite*
PLURAL
nominative fūrēs noctēs urbēs capita
genitive fūrum noctum urbium capitum
dative fūribus noctibusem urbibus capitibus
accusative fūrēs noctēs urbēs capita
ablative fūribus noctibus urbibus capitibus

The vocative case has exactly the same form as the nominative case, except in the singular of the second declension, where -us becomes -e and -ius becomes -ī. For examples see page 190.

* The ablative singular of mare (sea) ends -ī: marī.

Uses of the cases

nominative

amīcus labōrat.

The friend is working.

The noun carrying out the action.

genitive

nōmen amīcī.

the friend’s name
the name of the friend

Possession: of, ’s

dative

puella amīcō dōnum dat.


necesse est amīcō labōrāre.

puella semper amīcō crēdit.

The girl gives a present to her friend.

It is necessary for the friend to work.

The girl always trusts her friend.

to


for


Some verbs are used with a noun in the dative case.

accusative

puella amīcum laudat.

puella ad amīcum ambulat.





puella multās hōrās dormiēbat.

The girl praises her friend.

The girl walks towards her friend.





The girl was sleeping for many hours.

The noun receiving the action.

with some prepositions, e.g.

ad (towards)

per (through)

trāns (across)

in (into)

How long something lasts for.

ablative

puella cum amīcō in forō ambulat.


mediā nocte canis lātrāvit.



hōra prīma puella surgit.

The girl is walking with her friend in the forum.

In the middle of the night the dog barked.


At the first hour the girl gets up.

in, on, by, with, from, at, often with a preposition, e.g.

in (in, on)

cum (with)

ā/ab (from, by)

ē/ex (out of)

The time when something happens.

vocative

salvē, Faustē!

Hello, Faustus!

Speaking to someone.

Adjectives

First and second declension

Third declension

masculine feminine neuter masculine/
feminine
neuter masculine/
feminine
neuter
SINGULAR
nominative bonus bona bonum tristis triste ingens
genitive bonī bonae bonī tristis ingentis
dative bonō bonae bonō tristī ingentī
accusative bonum bonam bonum tristem triste ingentem ingens
ablative bonō bonā bonō tristī ingentī
PLURAL
nominative bonī bonae bona tristēs tristia ingentēs ingentia
genitive bonōrum bonārum bonōrum tristium ingentium
dative bonīs tristibus ingentibus
accusative bonōs bonās bona tristēs tristia ingentēs ingentia
ablative bonīs tristibus ingentibus

Comparative and superlative adjectives

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

laetus happy laetior happier laetissimus happiest, very happy
pulcher beautiful pulchrior more beautiful pulcherrimus most beautiful, very beautiful
trīstis sad trīstior sadder trīstissimus saddest, very sad
dīves rich dīvitior richer dīvitissimus richest, very rich
facilis easy facilior easier facillimus easiest, very easy

Irregular forms

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

bonus good melior better optimus best, very good
magnus big maior bigger maximus biggest, very big
malus bad pēior worse pessimus worst, very bad
multus much plūs more plūrimus most, very much
parvus small minor smaller minimus smallest, very small
Pronouns
SINGULAR masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative hic haec hoc ille illa illud
genitive huius illīus
dative huic illī
accusative hunc hanc hoc illum illam illud
ablative hōc hāc hōc illō illā illō
PLURAL
nominative hae haec illī illae illa
genitive hōrum hārum hōrum illōrum illārum illōrum
dative hīs illīs
accusative hōs hās haec illōs illās illa
ablative hīs illīs
SINGULAR masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative is ea id quī quae quod
genitive eius cuius
dative cui
accusative eum eam id quem quam quod
ablative quō quā quō
PLURAL
nominative eae ea quī quae quod
genitive eōrum eārum eōrum quōrum quārum quōrum
dative eīs quibus
accusative eōs eās ea quem quam quod
ablative eīs quibus
I we you (singular) you (plural) himself, herself, themselves
nominative ego nōs vōs
genitive meī nostrum tuī vestrum suī
dative mihi nōbīs tibi vōbīs sibi
accusative nōs vōs
ablative nōbīs vōbīs
Numbers
1 I ūnus, ūna, ūnum
2 II duo, duae, duo
3 III trēs, trēs, tria
4 IIII or IV quattuor
5 V quīnque
6 VI sex
7 VII septem
8 VIII octō
9 VIIII or IX novem
10 X decem
50 L quīnquāgintā
100 C centum
500 D quīngentī
1,000 M mīlle
1st prīmus, a, um
2nd secundus, a, um
3rd tertius, a, um
4th quārtus, a, um
5th quīntus, a, um
6th sextus, a, um
7th septimus, a, um
8th octāvus, a, um
9th nōnus, a, um
10th decimus, a, um

The numbers 4–10, 50, and 100 do not change their endings.

The numbers 1–3 change their endings as follows:

masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine
nominative ūnus ūna ūnum duo duae duo trēs tria
genitive ūnius duōrum duārum duōrum trium
dative ūni duōbus duābus duōbus tribus
accusative ūnum ūnam ūnum duōs duās duo trēs tria
ablative ūnō ūnā ūnō duōbus duābus duōbus tribus
Verbs

1st conj.

2nd conj.

3rd conj.

4th conj.

3rd/4th conj.

call hold send hear take
PRESENT (I call, am calling, etc.)
I vocō ten mittō aud cap
you (sing.) vocās tenēs mittis audīs capis
he, she, it vocat tenet mittit audit capit
we vocāmus tenēmus mittimus audīmus capimus
you (plur.) vocātis tenētis mittitis audītis capitis
they vocant tenent mittunt audunt capunt
FUTURE (I shall call, etc.)
I vocā tenē
you (sing.) vocābis tenēbis
he, she, it vocābit tenēbit
we vocābimus tenēbimus
you (plur.) vocābitis tenēbitis
they vocābunt tenēbunt
IMPERFECT (I was calling, used to call, etc.)
I vocābam tenēbam mittēbam audiēbam capiēbam
you (sing.) vocābās tenēbās mittēbās audiēbās capiēbās
he, she, it vocābat tenēbat mittēbat audiēbat capiēbat
we vocābāmus tenēbāmus mittēbāmus audiēbāmus capiēbāmus
you (plur.) vocābātis tenēbātis mittēbātis audiēbātis capiēbātis
they vocābant tenēbant mittēbant audiēbant capiēbant
PERFECT (I called, have called, etc.)
I vocāvī tenuī mīsī audīvī cēpī
you (sing.) vocāvistī tenuistī mīsistī audīvistī cēpistī
he, she, it vocāvit tenuit mīsit audīvit cēpit
we vocāvimus tenuimus mīsimus audīvimus cēpimus
you (plur.) vocāvistis tenuistis mīsistis audīvistis cēpistis
they vocāvērunt tenuērunt mīsērunt audīvērunt cēpērunt
PRESENT INFINITIVE (to call, etc.)
vocāre tenēre mittere audīre capere
IMPERATIVE (call!, etc.)
singular vocā tenē mitte audī cape
plural vocāte tenēte mittite audīte capite
Irregular verbs
PRESENT I am I am able I go I want I don’t want I bring
I sum possum eō volō nōlō ferō
you (sing.) es potes īs s nōn vīs fers
he, she, it est potest it vult nōn vult fert
we sumus possumus īmus volumus nōlumus ferimus
you (plur.) estis potestis ītis vultis nōn vultis fertis
they sunt possunt eunt volunt nōlunt ferunt
 
FUTURE I shall be I shall be able I shall go
I erō poterō ībō
you (sing.) eris poteris ībis
he, she, it erit poterit ībit
we erimus poterimus ībimus
you (plur.) eritis poteritis ībitis
they erunt poterunt ībunt
 
IMPERFECT I was I was able I was going I used to want I was unwilling I was bringing
I eram poteram ībam volēbam nōlēbam ferēbam
you (sing.) erās poterās ībās volēbās nōlēbās ferēbās
he, she, it erat poterat ībat volēbat nōlēbat ferēbat
we erāmus poterāmus ībāmus volēbāmus nōlēbāmus ferēbāmus
you (plur.) erātis poterātis ībātis volēbātis nōlēbātis ferēbātis
they erant poterant ībant volēbant nōlēbant ferēbant
 
PERFECT I have been I have been able I went I wanted I didn’t want I brought
I fuī potuī iī voluī nōluī tulī
you (sing.) fuistī potuistī īstī voluistī nōluistī tulistī
he, she, it fuit potuit iit voluit nōluit tulit
we fuimus potuimus iimus voluimus nōluimus tulimus
you (plur.) fuistis potuistis īstis voluistis nōluistis tulistis
they fuērunt potuērunt iērunt voluērunt nōluērunt tulērunt
 
PRESENT INFINITIVE to be to be able to go to want not to want to bring
esse posse īre velle nōlle ferre
 
IMPERATIVE go! be unwilling! bring!
singular ī nōlī fer
plural īte nōlīte ferte